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On Burundi, US Imposes Sanctions on Four Contributing to Crisis, List Here

By Matthew Russell Lee

UNITED NATIONS, November 23 -- As killings in Burundi have increased, on November 12, the Security Council adopted a belated resolution on Burundi. (Inner City Press put the full text online here, and here in French.) Afterward Inner City Press asked UK Ambassador Rycroft, the President of the Council for November what steps would actually be needed to send any peacekeepers from MONUSCO in DR Congo (he said there are discussions).

Inner City Press managed to ask French Permanent Representative Francois Delattre why UN Peacekeeping keeping using and paying for Burundian troops and police in the Central African Republic (a Press question both the UK and US Ambassador Samantha Power have seen fit to respond to.) Delattre declined to answer - but more politely than his deputy had, here.

On November 23 the US imposed sanctions. NSC spokesperson Ned Price said: "Today President Obama issued a new Executive Order imposing sanctions against persons who have contributed to the ongoing crisis in Burundi.  This Executive Order provides the authority to block the assets of those who, among other things, have engaged in or provided material support for actions that threaten peace and security in Burundi, undermine democratic processes, or who are responsible for or complicit in human rights abuses against people in Burundi.  The Executive Order also imposes visa restrictions on those individuals meeting the criteria for the asset freeze. "

Here are Burundian passports listed on the US Treasury Department's website:

BIZIMANA, Godefroid, Kinanira IV, Bujumbura, Burundi; DOB 23 Apr 1968;
Diplomatic Passport DP0001520 (Burundi) issued 01 Aug 2012 expires 01 Aug 2017
(individual) [BURUNDI].

BUNYONI, Alain Guillaume (a.k.a. BUNYONI, Allain Guillaume), 143 Avenue
Gasekebuye, Commune Urbaine de Musaga, Bujumbura, Bujumbura 1870, Burundi; DOB
02 Jan 1972; POB Bujumbura, Burundi; nationality Burundi; National ID No.
0201184751 (Burundi); Diplomatic Passport DP0001842 (Burundi) issued 08 Apr 2013
expires 08 Apr 2018; Minister of Public Security (individual) [BURUNDI].

NIYOMBARE, Godefroid, Kinanira 4, Bujumbura, Bujumbura, Burundi; DOB 18 Oct
1969; POB Bujumbura, Burundi; nationality Burundi; Gender Male; Passport
PD007079 (Burundi) issued 01 Jun 2010 expires 01 Jun 2015; National ID No.
0201CNI189976; Major General (individual) [BURUNDI].

There is also Cyrille Ndayirukiye: "Cyrille Ndayirukiye is responsible for or complicit in actions or policies that threaten the peace, security, or stability of Burundi, and is a leader or official of an entity that has engaged in such activities.  As deputy leader of an attempt to overthrow the Government of Burundi in May 2015, Ndayirukiye’s actions contributed to the deterioration of stability within Burundi.  Ndayiruke was detained in June by the Government of Burundi, which should grant full and regular humanitarian access by independent monitors to confirm Ndayiruke and other detainees are not being subjected to torture or ill-treatment."

   In Burundi, the Pierre Nkurunziza government has taken to freezing the bank accounts of civil society groups, not only political but even medical. Here's from Iwacu:

"The accounts of Maison Shalom, the local NGO founded by Marguerite Barankitse were frozen. Maison Shalom is very active in humanitarian and development projects in particular. Thus, thanks to the Maison Shalom, Ruyigi has a modern hospital, open to all. This "jewel", unique to Burundi, will therefore close after the freezing of accounts of the NGOs, to punish "Maggy" accused, among others, to be opposed to third term. She was forced into exile.

"Iwacu reporters traveled to Ruyigi, they discovered a completely stunned population by the decision. The hospital will close in the neonatal unit, the only one in the region, there are still two babies and then it will be the cessation of activities. The peak unemployment, projects initiated by the Maison Shalom in development will stop. It's desperation for tens of thousands of people.

Here there is no question of third term but sick, premature babies, people operated.
There is reason to question the appropriateness of such a decision. Let's just say Maggy hatred has blinded the people who took an inhumane decision. A premature baby incubator victim of the third mandate ... It is difficult to understand."

 Where is the UN on this? On FORSC, FOCODE and APRODH we aim to have more.

Where is Nkurunziza taking Burundi?

On November 20, Inner City Press asked UN Spokesman Stephane Dujarric, transcript here:

Inner City Press: about Burundi, people are saying that the UN has told its staff to restrict their movements in light of planned demonstrations and the two, both the French and Belgian I guess embassies there have said the same.  There is also this spat between the ruling party, the CNDD-FDD and the Belgians where the Belgians said the people should leave and the party said you are a bunch of colonialists and if you don’t leave we will hurt you.  What has happened in terms of the UN’s involvement?

Spokesman Dujarric:  Obviously in any place where the security situation is tense, it’s the responsibility of the senior UN official on the ground to recommend whatever measures he or she deems necessary, so I’m not going to comment on that.  We are obviously following the situation closely.  As I mentioned to you earlier, Mr. Benomar is on his way to the region.  We hope to have an update from him as soon as he starts his round of consultations.  The situation on the ground remains of grave concern to us.  I think we have seen an increase of violence and it’s clear that the Government has the responsibility to ensure the safety of people within, obviously, international human rights norms.

Then later in the November 20 briefing:

Inner City Press: In the DRC, the UN’s own or affiliated Radio Okapi has reported that the FDLR has essentially held people - in Walikale which is well-known for a previous mass rape and Lubero - hostage, they’re not allowing people to make phone calls and I could go on.  But what I’m saying is, if the UN’s own Radio Okapi is aware of essentially taking hostage of people by the longstanding FDLR militia group, what are they doing about it?

Spokesman:  I don’t have that information.  I don’t have an update sitrep from MONUSCO today.  You are free to call the Mission to see if they have anything to share with you but I don’t have information here.

Inner City Press:  Yesterday there was a story saying that an unnamed UN peacekeeping official here in New York said that the DRC didn’t, wasn’t properly vetting its troops that were sent to Central African Republic.  And I wanted to see, I guess, it seems like a big announcement, whether DPKO has something in writing on that.  And I wanted to ask, it also seems strange there are also allegations of sexual abuse by a number of other contingents and including by the Sangaris force.  Does DPKO or the UN believe that Sangaris appropriately vets its people?  I mean…  I’m trying to understand since the announcement was made anonymously…

Spokesman:  I think first of all I don’t have any specific announcement.  As you know, we have no authority over Sangaris troops.  We are obviously all very well aware of the allegations against it and we are we look forward to the continuing French investigation to see that if crimes were committed by the Sangaris soldiers, those soldiers are brought to justice.  And we have full confidence that the soldiers are being – that the right policies are in place but obviously we are very much focused on the judicial investigation.  On the DRC what I can tell you is that the UN, DPKO is in discussions with the DRC authorities about the future of the Congolese contingent in the Central African Republic.  And we will have more when we have a little bit more official to announce; but, obviously, it’s clear that the results of the assessment and the vetting of the unit was not satisfactory.

Inner City Press:  The reason I ask this, and you will remember this, I’ve asked you a couple times here about the vetting of the Burundian contingent CAR and I’ve actually seen a document where Mr. Ladsous gave them a waiver and said give them an extension until March 2016 to even bring the right equipment to the country, so you didn’t comment on that one but this one…

Spokesman:  Listen, I have not seen the document you’re referring to.  I think there is different, in general terms, different issues between equipment and obviously human rights vetting.  The vetting of troops for human rights issues is, you know, there are three real components to it:  there is the Government itself, there is the UN and different parts of the UN, and also key groups that we share information with.  So that is it.

Inner City Press:  What do you mean public with the vetting, that is what I’m asking about?

Spokesman:  If there is an issue obviously with the DRC, with the DRC contingent, I do expect to have something a little more official to say later.

  When the UN Peacebuilding Commission Burundi Configuration met on November 18 it was it was to hear from Swiss Permanent Representative Lauber about his trip to the region, including three days in Bujumbura. He described a climate of fear -- while adding that Burundians are resilient -- and of a 10 pm curfew. He quoted the World Bank that the government has cut health spending; he said he aim to return to the country in January or February. What will the situation be them?

  Burundi's Permanent Representative Shingiro responded that the problems are caused by opposition outside of the country and “the media” within. He stated that Lauber had a meeting of confident with Pierre Nkurunziza, November 11 at noon for 45 minutes. He said the specter of genocide is a “tactic of the radical opposition abroad.”

   US Deputy Permanent Representative David Pressman called out authorities' hate speech in the country, as did UK Deputy Permanent Representative Peter Wilson. When it came the turn of France, the penholder on Burundi in the Security Council, to speak, neither Permanent Representative Francois Delattre nor his Deputy Alexis Lamek was there. There are two explanations, not mutual exclusive.

  At the day's noon briefing, Inner City Press asked the UN about those trying to flee not being allowed to leave the country and, on behalf of the Free UN Coalition for Access, about Shingiro's comment about the media. During the briefing, a statement came in from civil society on Burundi, signed by Vital Nshimirimana, naming hate speech and even the training of the ruling party's militia the Imbonerakure at Kiliba -Ondes in Eastern DRC, on which Herve Ladsous' UN Peacekeeping never acted. Plus ca change.

On November 17, Inner City Press asked UN Spokesman Stephane Dujarric, video here, transcript here:

Inner City Press: on Burundi, it seems overnight there were these raids on a number of neighborhoods thought to be anti-third term – Musaga, Cibitoke et cetera, and people, you know, led out.  So I'm wondering, with all this talk about UN presence on the ground, does the UN have any readout on these mass arrests?

Spokesman:  Obviously, we're continuing to watch the situation through our country office there.  And, as I mentioned yesterday, Jamal Benomar is on his way… is on his way to the region.

Inner City Press:  I saw him on 42nd Street this morning.

Spokesman:  Well, if he's heading… he's probably heading…

Inner City Press:  Maybe he was walking to the airport…?

Spokesman:  …towards the airport.  There you go.  Thank you

 On November 16, Inner City Press ask Dujarric, video here, transcript here:

Spokesman Dujarric: Mr. Lee?

Inner City Press: In Burundi, the last remaining independent media, Iwacu, the director was summoned in to be asked by the police if he’s connected to the previous coup attempt.  What’s the UN… what’s your response to that? And, two, what has the UN been doing since naming of the Special Adviser?

Spokesman:  Obviously, as we’ve been saying, the Secretary-General is extremely concerned by the continued violence that we’ve seen in Burundi, especially the violence we’ve seen over the weekend, where at least six people were killed in these grenade attacks at various locations in the capital.  The Secretary-General once again calls on the violence to stop. On the case of the head of the Iwacu press group, we’re obviously following… the UN is following the closely the court proceedings, which I think took place before the Supreme Court in Bujumbura this morning, if I’m not mistaken.  You know, obviously, Iwacu remains an important independent voice in Burundi, and the United Nations urges national authorities to safeguard the freedom of expression for all media in the country and will continue to monitor the developments in the region.  As for the political track, Jamal Benomar, who is the Secretary-General’s Special Adviser — as we’ve said, Burundi is one of his files — and he will be traveling to the Great Lakes region later this week.

 So at least the UN had an if-asked ready on Burundi. But what will it come to?

On November 13, the spokesperson for the Pierre Nkurunziza's government issued a response to the resolution, saying that it "toes the line" of the Government and that the problems in the country are "nothing other than poverty," here.

  On the evening of November 11, the UN Spokesperson's office announced that there would be a formal Security Council meeting on Burundi at 12:15 pm on November 12, that would be to approve the draft resolution. An unnamed official of Herve Ladsous UN Peacekeeping -- wonder who that could be -- got Reuters to retype without analysis the idea the UN would send peacekeepers from "Congo" - that would be DRC -- into Burundi.

 UNasked by Reuters, actively covered up, is that Ladsous' MONUSCO has been unable or unwilling to protect civilians in parts of the Eastern DRC, and has refused to neutralize the Hutu FDLR militia. So it would take on Pierre Nkurunziza's forces and youth wing in Burundi?

  This youth wing was allowed by MONUSCO to train in Eastern Congo; nothing was said by MONUSCO when DRC detained a Burundian journalist. None of this in the Reuters, or AFP, or even more derivative Voice of America story. But to retain this "access," these media do not report when the UN's Herve Ladsous, on camera, links peacekeeper rapes to "R&R." Video here. This is a scam. Watch this site.

  While the November 9 meeting was still ongoing, the UN announced that French Permanent Representative Francois Delattre would address the press in ten minutes. But when it happened it was the French Mission's deputy Alexis Lamek, moderated by the Mission's spokesman Thierry Caboche.

After bragging about a draft resolution French belatedly circulated, Lamek and his spokesperson twice refused to take a Press question about UN Peacekeeping still using the same Bururdian forces accused of the abuses.  NewVine here. New video, with UK contrast, here.

 The French mission spokesperson, after calling on Reuters, called on Agence France Presse. Inner City Press said, please answer why Herve Ladsous - the fourth French head of UN Peacekeeping in a row - uses Burundian troops in Central African Republic, giving them extensions to bring the right equipment (the government, sources say, takes the money.)

 "Ask him," Lamek said off camera, referring to Ladsous who repeatedly refuses Press questions on this (and on covering up French Sangaris forces rapes in CAR.)

  Moments later when Inner City Press asked UK Deputy Ambassador Peter Wilson if the UN should keep using Burundian troops or vet them, Wilson called this a "big issues" that "needs to be looked at." Audio including Elements to the Press, here. Fast transcript by, here:

Inner City Press asked, the UN uses Burundian peacekeepers in CAR. Is there, or could there be, some review of that?

UK Deputy Peter Wilson: "on peacekeepers, I think this is a big issue, and I think it’s something certainly that needs to be looked at in a wider context of what response we take to the events in Burundi right now. I wouldn’t urge precipitate action on that, but I think it’s one of the issues that we need collectively to consider."

 Strange then, that the penholding on Burundi and controller of UN Peacekeeping wouldn't even take the questions. The history of the Great Lakes runs deep. More recently, Inner City Press is informed is belated discussion among Security Council Permanent Five members that Ladsous is a liability, should or can he even be allowed to stay on to the end of Ban Ki-moon's term.

 On November 10, Inner City Press asked UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric, video here, transcript here:

Inner City Press: I'll do Burundi first as a follow-up to that.  Yesterday at the stakeout, Peter Wilson of the UK said that the issue of continued or… or service of Burundian peacekeepers, particularly those involved in the violence in UN peacekeeping, is a big issue, is something that needs to be looked at in the wider context of the response to the events in Burundi right now.  Since… I think I've previously asked you about… my understanding is the Under-Secretary-General of Peacekeeping waived Burundi not having the right equipment twice in a row in CAR.  I wanted you to describe, if you could, what is the process, one, for vetting individuals that come out of the… what you described as a… big violence in Burundi, but also of giving these waivers.  Is this something that's done unilaterally by the Secretariat?

Spokesman:  I'm not… I can't speak to the waivers because I can't… I don't know if what you say is, in fact, a fact.

Inner City Press:  Can… can… is the meeting in September…? [Inner City Press actually referred to Ladsous' September meeting with Burundi, on which it reported.]

Spokesman:  As far as… as far as Burundian troops, they continue to serve in the Central African Republic and other missions, if I'm not mistaken.  They are rotated through the standard human rights vetting process, which involves the UN, which involves the government, which involves the High Commissioner for Human Rights, and which involves the more… the broader human rights community.

Inner City Press:  What about the issue of… there have been several complaints by the peacekeepers themselves of not getting paid leaving some in Burundi to say, in fact, this is a way in which the UN is subsidizing the Government and the very activities that Mr. Zeid was condemning yesterday?  What steps are taken to ensure that the money reaches the peacekeepers?

Spokesman:  Obviously, it is critical whether it's in the case of Burundi if it, in fact, happens or other countries that individual peacekeepers receive the monies that are owed to them.

Inner City Press:  But Mr. [Hervé] Ladsous right here in September said that he's… that he's not sure whether this money reaches soldiers.  So what steps does the UN take, particularly in a case like Burundi, where you're accusing the Government of cracking down on the people, what steps are taken?

Spokesman:  As I said, I think it's incumbent on the governments to ensure that their soldiers get paid.  Did you have another question?


 At the November 9 meeting, Burundi's Nyamitwe droned on by video by Bujumbura, even as Security Council President Matthew Rycroft asked him to bring it to an end. He continued speaking as the other speakers on video -- Prince Zeid, Adama Dieng, Swiss Ambassador Lauber -- squirmed, seeming like the audience to wonder if Rycroft would just cut his mic (he didn't.)

  Inner City Press immediately put online that speech, and that of Uganda's Ambassador Nduhuura and the African Union's Tete Antonio, here.

 On November 7 came reports of killings, including it was said a UN system staff member. This has been confirmed by UNDP - but only the local Buurndi office. Still from the UN, nothing. The Security Council issued a Press Statement on November 7... about Libya.

  Burundian journalist Blaise Célestin Ndihokubwayo has been arrested and sent to the Service national de renseignement (SNR). Where is UNESCO and its director, who wants to be the next UN Secretary General?

On October 23 Inner City Press asked UN Ambassador Matthew Rycroft about the status of the draft Presidential Statement in the UN Security Council. He said there are differing views, but the UK is concerned about the "threat of genocide." Video here.  On November 3, Inner City Press again put a Burundi questions to Rycroft, now President of the Security Council for November. Video here, story here.

The son of human rights defender Pierre Claver Mbonimpa has reportedly been murdered, after Pierre Nkurunziza tweeted that "No one living abroad should consider himself superior to those who stayed in Burundi, since most of them have left their families here."

 On November 6, a belated Security Council meeting on Burundi was announced -- from Paris, by French foreign ministry spokesperson Romain Nadal. Why the delay? Why announced in that way?

Later on November 6, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (whose spokesman could not tell Inner City Press if Ban will have any representative in the Security Council's meeting on Monday) put out this statement.

 Inner City Press at the November 6 UN noon briefing asked how these concerns were consistent with Ban deferring to the Ugandan Defense Minister (for the EAC, Ban's spokesman pointed out), and asked if Ban will even have a representative briefing the UN Security Council on Monday. UNclear. Video here.

  The US' Tom Perriello, filmed at the State Department, noted the weekend deadline. But why then was the UN Security Council meeting left until after the deadline?
  US Ambassador Samantha Power put out this statement, here.

  Behind the continued killing, here's an issue: Inner City Press is informed that a number of Burundian civil society leaders and journalists have improperly been flagged to Interpol as if their passports had been stolen. This has made it impossible, for example, for Vital Nshimirimana to travel to a speak about the crisis in Burundi at a conference in (Ban Ki-moon's native) South Korea.

  Inner City Press on November 4 asked the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights' Ivan Simonovic and UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric about this.  Interpol often brags at the UN how it is useful on the issue of foreign fighters. It's Secretary General Jurgen Stock spoke before the UN Security Council on May 29, 2015. But what about when Interpol is misused by a government like Pierre Nkurunziza? What do it, the Security Council and its members do that? Watch this site.

 On November 2 Inner City Press asked UN Spokesman Stephane Dujarric about two speeches given in Burundi (the full text of one is below). Video here, UN transcript here:

Inner City Press: In Burundi, there was a speech by the President of the Senate [Révérien Ndikuriyo] saying that opposition neighborhoods may be razed [or raided. Some] people are calling it a genocide speech.  There's also a speech by the President, saying anyone who doesn't disarm within the next five days will be treated as an enemy of the State.  So, I'm wondering, not to overdo it, but things seem pretty serious.  I wanted to know:  what is the UN doing?

Spokesman:  "It's clear that those in position of power, whether in Government or in the opposition, have a responsibility not to incite fear or hate of any kind.  I think that's very important and that whatever security measures the Government takes fully comply with international law and respect for the right of people to freely assemble and protest."

 After Burundi was elected to the UN Human Rights Council with 162 votes on October 28, on October 31 security forces in Burundi opened fire on a funeral procession in Buringa, killing many.  These are the Burundian forces that UN Peacekeeping under Herve Ladsous keeps in service, offering waivers while the Government keeps the payments?

  It is reported the Burundian authorities are accusing a medical NGO of offering treatment to insurgents, and are ready to attack. Frankly, the weak UN Security Council Presidential Statement which France belatedly proffered in the Council, then didn't even hold a question and answer stakeout about, is woefully insufficient, as is the UN Secretariat's response.

 Now from Burundi this speech

 On October 28, Inner City Press asked UN spokesman Stephane Dujarric about another threat. From the UN transcript:

Inner City Press: this is a tweet from the official account of Pierre Nkurunziza, President of Burundi:  "No one living abroad should consider himself superior to those who stayed in Burundi since most of them have left their families here."  So people see this as an open-source threat to retaliate against the families of those who have fled the country.  And I'm wondering…

Spokesman:  I haven't seen the tweet.  I shall look at it.

 Inner City Press showed it to him on his way out. Earlier on October 28, Burundi got 162 votes for the UN Human Rights Council, less than the other also unopposed candidates, but still enough to get on the Council. The UN Security Council had just issued a Presidential Statement, here, which gave weight to the Museveni "mediation," and which the US later "welcomed." Usually it's the penholder (France) which speaks. But not here, not on Burundi (see Ladsous, below).

  On October 28 Burundi was poised for election to the UN Human Rights Council, as one of five African Group candidates for five seats. Meanwhile on October 26, the European Union adopted the letter to President Pierre Nkurunziza that Inner City Press asked the UN about last week, here.

  Can EU members on October 28 not vote against Burundi's "Human Rights" Council candidacy at this time? And other Western NGOs coming to the UN early this week to set forth their positions, will they just phone it in with regard to Burundi? Watch this site.

 Also on October 23, Inner City Press asked UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon:

Inner City Press: I wanted to ask on Burundi, just this morning the UK Ambassador said that the UK is concerned of a threat of genocide, is the word that he used, so I'm wondering under Rights Up Front what are your thoughts about Burundi and what the UN or the Secretariat can do.

SG Ban: "On this genocide issues, I hope there should be some creative investigations by the relevant experts and there should be, first of all, a clear understanding and investigations.  And if the conclusion is that there were such kind of genocide issues, then there should be accountability, justice must prevail and perpetrators must be brought to justice."

  But what is the UN Secretariat DOING about it?

  On October 16 Inner City Press asked Haq if the UN thinks the government can investigate itself. This was based on UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon's October 15 statement that

"The Secretary-General condemns the killing of nine civilians and two police officers in Bujumbura on 13 October... He urges Burundian authorities to undertake a rigorous and prompt investigation into the circumstances and motives behind these despicable crimes in order to ensure that their perpetrators are brought to justice."

  So can the Nkurunziza government investigate itself (as the UN purports to be investigating or "auditing" itself in the wake of corruption revelation about former Presidnet of the General Assembly John Ashe among others)? Inner City Press asked this question (video here) as well as following up on this, from October 13:

Inner City Press: the Burundi question is one that maybe you can check with DPKO [Department of Peacekeeping Operations].  Burundian human rights activists say that an officer, Jerome Ntibogora, N-t-i-b-o-g-o-r-a, who was accused of being involved in killing people in a… in a hospital after they fled from the Government, has now been deployed to MINUSMA [United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission] in Mali.  So I wanted to…

Spokesman Dujarric:  Let's see what we can find out.

  Dujarric did not come back with an answer, by this deputy when Inner City Pres asked again on October 16 said he, Ntibogora is not being deployed. We'll see - watch this site.
Amid crackdowns in Burundi by security forces, and allegations of sexual abuse by Burundian peacekeepers serving under the UN flag, UN Peacekeeping chief Herve Ladsous on October 1 held a meeting with Burundian Vice President Joseph Butore.

  Inner City Press has already tweeted a photograph of the meeting, but has now received the complete UN read-out, which raises more questions about Ladsous.

   On the crackdown, Ladsous assured Butore that he has a “pragmatic approach” and is of no mind to question what happens in any country, does not involve himself in "domestic affairs."

   On the sexual abuse allegations, Ladsous spoke only in platitudes, without requiring or even inquiring into any actions taken by the Burundians on the alleged abuse.

   Even though Burundi was already given a “grace period” to bring appropriate equipment into the Central African Republic for the MINUSCA mission, they have not done so. In the meeting, according to the read-out, Butore "acknowledged" the substandard equipment.

   Butore requested, and Ladsous for now granted, yet another extension to bring the requirement equipment -- until March 2016 for light equipment, and to June 2016 for heavy equipment.

  Is this safe - even for the Burundian soldiers at issue? While speaking through press releases, Ladsous' spokespeople, far from answering questions, go so far as to direct UNTV boom microphone operators to avoid Inner City Press, even preventing the Press from asking any questions to Mali's Foreign Minister Abdulaye Diop. We'll have more on all this.


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