in Sudan & Darfur Reviewed, With Ambassadors in Nairobi
5 -- As the UN Security
Council and its five Permanent
Members mill around the Nairobi airport before belateding being
whisked to a VIP lounge to wait for their flight to Uganda then Juba,
historic role of each P-5 member in Sudan seems worth surveying.
course, colonized Sudan until its independence in 1956. In Darfur,
for example, the British sought local leaders, even defining which
tribes were large enough to name their own nazir and have a formal
tribal homeland. Arabs in Darfur who didn't make the cut more
recently spawned Janjaweed and much destruction.
the US has
been more interested in the North - South, Muslim - Christian
conflict, it's worth noting that the CIA as well as France backed
Chad in 1987 in driving Gaddafi's Arabist forces back into Darfur,
which also played its role in the more recent conflict there.
France is the
host to Darfur rebel leader Abdel Wahid Nur, as Inner City Press
asked French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner about last week.
relations with Khartoum are well known; why China did not use its
Security Council veto to block the referral of Darfur, and ultimately
Omar al Bashir, to the International Criminal Court is still not
known. Some say China wanted to have additional leverage over
Bashir. But now the indictment seemingly cannot be put off.
October 4 in
New York before he and Inner City Press left for the airport, Ugandan
Permanent Representative Ruhakana Rugunda said that his country
favors suspending the indictment for a year, under Article 16 of the
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, but that there is
not Council unanimity for this. It wouldn't require a unanimous vote,
but any of the P-5 could stop it.
as one of the
Western P-5 Permanent Representatives told the Press last month that
it is impossible to imagine any of the Western P-5s taking a photo
with Bashir, it is similarly difficult to imagine them -- much less
all three of them -- voting to suspend Bashir's indictment for
genocide and war crimes.
least implicated P-5 member is Russia. Their Cold War involvements in
Africa notwithstanding, Russia's involvement today seems limited to
dominating air transport. But this has led to at least two recent
incidents of Russian pilots and crews being kidnapped and beaten in
Darfur. While when Inner City Press asked him about it, Russia's
Permanent Representative Vitaly Churkin minimized these incidents,
they may explain his personal participation on the trip.
the plane carrying the Security Council Ambassadors reached
Nairobi, less planning than might have been expected had been done.
The Ambassadors “sneaked” through a gate for another group's
installments we hope to review the business interests of the P-5
members, and the wider interests of the Elected (or Temporary) Ten.
Watch this site, and follow on Twitter @InnerCityPress
* * *
Voting Materials Delayed Blamed on US, Silence on Darfur
5 -- While Khartoum's backsliding is the storyline of the UN
Security Council's trip now to Sudan, some of the delay in starting
registration is due to decisions by the US and UN, sources tell Inner
materials are, as widely reported, being printed in South Africa. But
why? The US promoted procurement practices and IFES, either because
committed to transparency or to keep Khartoum from creating mischief
in this way. But the move has resulted in delay. The materials won't
be ready until late October. Then they have to be transported all
over South Sudan.
fact, less than
half of the polling places will be in South Sudan: 1600. Fully 2000
will be in the North of overseas. No one knows how many Southerns are
living in the North. One fear is that the North will over-register
them, or create names without voters behind them, to make it
impossible to reach the 60% turn out necessary in order to have the
secession vote count.
too about the cost of the elections. Experts tell Inner City Press
that the rule of thumb, if there is one, for post-conflict votes is
form $1o to $ 15 per voter. Assuming an electorate of 4 to 5 million,
this vote should cost $75 million tops. But it is now budgeted for
$360 million. Where will the money go?
the failure not only of the UN but now also the US to speak out about
the rising rate of death in Darfur.
Rugunda in a previous life in Juba, LRA talks: back to the future?
There is a
sense that the
suffering in Darfur was raised to gain leverage over Omar al Bashir,
and is now being ignored or traded in, for the seemingly more
important North - South referendum. It will be hard to rebut this.
Watch this space.
John F. Kennedy airport, Inner City Press ran into the Permanent
Representatives of Mexico, Turkey and Bosnia, preparing for the
flight. Ambassador Heller of Mexico said even he hadn't yet read the
full terms of reference of the Security Council's trip, which Inner
City Press had just obtained and put online. The trip is being run by
two countries, and maybe one and a half. They will have to own also
we note, Russia's Permanent Representative Vitaly Churkin is on the trip. Who was it, now
that we think of it, who kidnapped and beat those Russian pilots in
Darfur? Watch this site.
* * *
to Sudan, UN Council Praises Chad, Talks Contingencies, Terms
NY, October 4 -- As UN Security Council Ambassadors take
over on a marathon set of flights
from New York to Nairobi then
Uganda and Sudan, the final Terms of Reference for their trip speak
of the need for “contingency planning... in view of the upcoming
referenda” in Sudan. Click here for the
Terms of Reference, as
obtained by Inner City Press, and see below.
in Khartoum, Sudanese Vice President Ali Osman Taha spoke darkly of
the referendum being delayed in oil rich Abyei. At Monday noon
briefing at the UN in New York, Inner City Press asked UN spokesman
Martin Nesirky if there is any UN response to Taha's statements.
Nesirky as usual had no comment.
to the Terms of Reference, such as included human rights and children
and armed conflict. It is not clear why the initial draft, largely
the work of the US and the UK, needed such amendments.
the 9th of the
13 Sudan paragraphs, “the recruitment of children by armed groups”
was added. Not explicitly added is the issue of UN-African Union
Darfur chief Ibrahim Gambari negotiating to hand over five supporters
of rebel Abdel Wahid Nur to the government.
At least one
Five member of the Council, having read Gambari's leaked documents on
Inner City Press, has sent them to “the capital” and hopes the
issue can be pursued in Darfur. Mais
paragraph, the Council's Sudan Terms of Reference “welcome improved
relations between the Governments of Sudan and Chad,” even though
this led to the closure of the peacekeeping mission in Chad and
Central Africa Republic, and drove Justice and Equality Movement
rebel leader not only out of Chad but also out of the Doha peace
process. Will the Council meet or at least speak with JEM's Khalil
Susan Rice & team in past, belated TOR and JEM not shown
Here are the
Terms of Reference, as obtained by Inner City Press:
Reference for Sudan
by Ambassadors Susan Rice (United States) and Mark Lyall Grant
(United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland)
reaffirm the Security Council's commitment to and the international
community's support for the Sudanese Parties' full and timely
implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and to encourage
a peaceful, comprehensive, and inclusive resolution for the situation
in Darfur. To reaffirm the Security Council's support for the
Sudanese Parties in working to make unity attractive and respecting
the right to self-determination of the people of South Sudan through
credible, peaceful, free and timely referenda on 9 January 2011 that
reflect the will of the Sudanese People of these areas and to hold
popular consultations, in accordance with the terms of the CPA, and
for all parties and states to respect the outcome.
emphasize the importance of the partnership between the UN and the
African Union for the international support to the Sudanese peace
processes. To express support for the work of the AU High-Level
Implementation Panel and the engagement of other regional and
international partners of Sudan.
stress that full and successful implementation of the Comprehensive
Peace Agreement is essential to sustainable peace and stability
throughout the Sudan, including Darfur, and in the region and to
encourage increased cooperation between the National Congress Party
and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement in carrying out their
responsibilities to fully implement the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement, including through successful and timely completion of
negotiations on post-referendum arrangements.
assess ongoing preparations for the referenda, and to reiterate that,
regardless of the results, both parties to the CPA will need to work
cooperatively to resolve critical issues and that the United Nations
will continue to play an important role in supporting and promoting
this dialogue, including through the recently designated UN
High-Level Panel for the Referenda to be led by President Benjamin
reiterate the Security Council's support for the UN Mission in Sudan
(UNMIS), to assess its performance and review the assistance provided
by the mission, within its current mandate and capabilities, to the
implementation of the CPA and the contingency planning being
developed by the mission in view of the upcoming referenda, as well
as the planning developed for its post-referenda presence in the
Sudan, and to underline the importance of full and unhindered access
for the mission, to all sites within its area of responsibility.
emphasise the importance of addressing the challenges faced by South
Sudan, including insecurity, humanitarian and development needs and
capacity building, irrespective of the outcome of the referendum.
emphasise the importance of continuing efforts to support the people
of Sudan, democratic governance, rule of law, accountability,
equality, respect for human rights, justice and establishment of the
conditions for conflict-affected communities to build strong,
stress the responsibility of all central and local authorities of
Sudan for the safety of members of peacekeeping missions,
humanitarian workers, and all working under local contracts.
express the Security Council's deep concern about the upsurge in
violence in Darfur; the number of civilian casualties and victims of
sexual and gender-based violence; the recruitment of children by
armed groups; the illegal arms flow into Darfur; and the continued
restrictions on humanitarian access. To underline its concern for the
security of civilians, humanitarian aid workers and peacekeepers in
Darfur and to reiterate the vital importance of the protection of
civilians and maintaining full, safe and unhindered access for
humanitarian workers to the population in need of assistance.
reiterate the Security Council's support for the AU-UN led peace
process and the work of the Joint Chief Mediator, Mr Bassole,
including the principles guiding the negotiations, and the urgent
need for achieving substantive progress. To urge all rebel groups to
join the Doha peace process without preconditions or further delay
and to call on all parties to immediately cease hostilities and
engage constructively in negotiations with a view to finding a
lasting peace in Darfur.
reiterate the Council's support for UNAMID and its personnel and to
reiterate its call on the Government of the Sudan and all relevant
parties to co-operate fully with the mission; to assess UNAMID's
performance and review the challenges it faces in carrying out its
mandate, giving priority to the protection of civilians and the
facilitation of humanitarian delivery, as well as the priority given
to UNAMID's continuing efforts to promote the engagement of all
Darfurian stakeholders in support of and to complement the AU-UN
political process in Darfur.
welcome improved relations between the Governments of Sudan and Chad
following the agreement of 15 January 2010 to normalise their
bilateral relations and the establishment of a joint border
monitoring mechanism, and to encourage continued co-operation and
strengthening of relations.
underline the need to ensure that Security Council resolutions are
Reference for Kampala
Ambassador Ruhakana Rugunda (Uganda)
reiterate the Security Council's support to the improvement of
relations among the countries of the region and to encourage them to
strengthen cooperation in all fields.
emphasize the Security Council's support for action against armed
groups in the region, particularly the Lord's Resistance Army.
reiterate the Security Council's support for the Djibouti Peace
Process and support for the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM)
in the stabilization of Somalia
stress the Security Council's firm commitment to the cause of peace
in the Sudan, the full implementation of the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement and successful negotiation of a comprehensive and inclusive
peace agreement for Darfur.
examine the important contribution by the Regional Service Center in
Entebbe, to the work of UN Missions in the region.
Watch this site.